Git workspaces

Git manages multiple locations or workspaces where files are stored:

local working copy

contains files and folders that can be edited normally.

staging area

contains changes to files that are scheduled for writing into the version history.

local repository

contains the entire history of all files in the project.

remote repository

also contains the entire history, but is stored on a remote server.


contains changes that are temporarily stored somewhere else to move them out of the way.

Basic Git commands

The following basic Git commands move changes between these workspaces.

git add

adds files from the working directory to the staging area.

git reset HEAD

restores a file in the work area from the stage area.

git stash

moves files from the workspace to a stash.

git stash pop

brings files from the stash to the work area.

git commit

writes changes from the staging area to the local repository.

git pull

copies changes from the remote to the local repository and updates the work area.

git push

copies changes from the local repository to the remote repository.

-u (long form --set-upstream)

allows to specify the remote repository and a branch in it.


the name of the remote repository, typically origin.


the name of a branch in the remote repository, typically the same as in the local repository.