$ git reset [--hard|--soft] TARGET_REFERENCE
resets the history to a previous commit, for example:
$ git reset HEAD~1
takes back the last commit and its changes are now transferred back to the staging area.
If there are changes in the staging area, they are moved to the working area, for example:
$ echo 'My first repo' > README.rst $ git add README.rst $ git status On branch main Changes marked for commit: (use "git rm --cached <Datei>..." to remove from staging area) New file: README.rst $ git reset $ git status On branch main Unversioned files: (use "git add <file>...", to mark the changes for commit) README.rst
discards the changes in the staging and working area as well.
$ git status On branch main Changes marked for commit: (use "git rm --cached <Datei>..." to remove from staging area) New file: README.rst $ git reset --hard $ git status On branch main nothing to commit (create/copy files and use "git add" to version)
takes back the commits, but leaves the stage and workspace unchanged.
The risk with
resetis that work can be lost. Commits are not deleted immediately, but they can become orphaned so that there is no direct path to them. They must then be found and restored promptly with
git reflog, as Git usually deletes all orphaned commits after 30 days.
$ git revert COMMIT SHA
creates a new commit and reverts the changes of the specified commit so that the changes are inverted.
$ git fetch --prune REMOTE
Remote refs are removed when they are removed from the remote repository.
$ git commit --amend
updates and replaces the last commit with a new commit that combines all deployed changes with the contents of the previous commit. If nothing is provided, only the previous commit message is rewritten.
$ git restore FILE
changes files in the working directory to a state previously known to Git. By default, Git
HEADchecks out the last commit of the current branch.
In Git < 2.23,
git restoreis not yet available. In this case you still have to use
$ git checkout FILE
Undo commit in the wrong branch#
If you have accidentally committed to an existing branch instead of creating a new branch first, you can change this in the following three steps:
create a new branch with
$ git branch NEW_BRANCH
Resets the last commit in your active branch with
$ git reset HEAD~ --hard
Apply the changes to the new branch with
$ git switch NEW_BRANCH
Remove a file from the history#
A file can be completely removed from the current branches Git history. This could be necessary if you accidentally committed passwords or huge files:
$ git filter-repo --invert-paths --path path/somefile $ git push --no-verify --mirror
Inform the team members that they should create a clone of the repository again.
Remove a string from the history#
$ git filter-repo --message-callback 'return re.sub(b"^git-svn-id:.*\n", b"", message, flags=re.MULTILINE)'