This section covers the basics of installing Python packages.
Requirements for installing packages#
Before installing Python packages, a few prerequisites must be met.
Make sure you are using the version of Python you want:
$ python --version Python 3.10.6
In iPython or a Jupyter Notebook you can find out the version with:
In : import sys sys.version_info sys.version_info(major=3, minor=10, micro=6, releaselevel='final', serial=0)
If you use the system Python of your Linux distribution, you should first create a virtual environment with Python 3 and Pip.
Make sure Pip is installed:
$ pip --version pip 22.0.2 from /usr/lib/python3/dist-packages/pip (python 3.10)
If Pip is not yet installed, you can install it
$ sudo apt install python3-venv python3-pip
$ sudo apt install python-pip
pipenv is a dependency manager for Python projects. It to install Python
packages, but it simplifies dependency management. Pip can be used to install
Pipenv, but the
--user flag should be used so that it is only available to
that user. This is to prevent system-wide packages from being accidentally
$ python3 -m pip install --user pipenv … Successfully installed distlib-0.3.4 filelock-3.4.2 pipenv-2022.1.8 platformdirs-2.4.1 virtualenv-20.13.0 virtualenv-clone-0.5.7
If pipenv is not available in the shell after the installation, the
USER_BASE/bin directory may have to be specified in
USER_BASE can be determined with:
$ python3 -m site --user-base /srv/jupyter/.local
bin directory must be appended and added to
PATH can be set permanently by changing
~/.bash_profile, in my case:
The directory can be determined with
py -m site --user-site and then
site-packages can be replaced by
Scripts. this then gives, for
In order to be permanently available, this path can be entered in
in the control panel.
Further information on user-specific installations can be found in User Installs.
Create virtual environments#
Python virtual environments allow Python packages to be installed in an isolated location for a specific application, rather than installing them globally. So you have your own installation directories and do not share libraries with other virtual environments:
$ mkdir myproject $ cd !$ cd myproject $ pipenv install requests Creating a virtualenv for this project... … Virtualenv location: /srv/jupyter/.local/share/virtualenvs/myproject-CZKj6mqJ Creating a Pipfile for this project... Installing requests... Adding requests to Pipfile's [packages]... …